Elucidation of Infusion-Induced Changes in the Key Odorants and Aroma Profile of Iranian Endemic Borage (Echium amoenum) Herbal Tea

AMANPOUR A., Zannou O., Kelebek H., SELLİ S.

Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol.67, no.9, pp.2607-2616, 2019 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 67 Issue: 9
  • Publication Date: 2019
  • Doi Number: 10.1021/acs.jafc.9b00531
  • Journal Name: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.2607-2616
  • Keywords: borage, Echium amoenum, GC-MS-O, infusions, key odorants, tea
  • Istanbul Medipol University Affiliated: Yes


Infusion-induced changes in the aroma and key odorants and their odor activity values of Iranian endemic herbal (Gol-Gavzaban) tea obtained from shade-dried violet-blue petals of borage (Echium amoenum) were studied for the first time. Two hot teas and one cold tea were investigated and coded as 4MN (4 min/98 °C), 16MN (16 min/98 °C), and 24HR (24 h/ambient temperature), respectively. Aromatic extracts of the tea samples were isolated by the liquid-liquid extraction method and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry (GC-MS-O) for the first time. According to the results of the aroma profiling, a total of 35 common aroma compounds comprising alcohols, acids, volatile phenols, lactones, aldehydes, ketone, pyrroles, and furans were identified and quantified in the tea samples. Indeed, it is worth noting that the aroma profiles of the borage teas were similar. However, the effects of the infusion techniques were clearly different as observed on the content of each individual and total compounds in the samples. The highest mean total concentration was detected in 24HR (266.0 mg/kg), followed by 16MN (247.1 mg/kg) and 4MN (216.1 mg/kg). 1-Penten-3-ol was the principal volatile component in all borage teas. On the basis of the result of the flavor dilution (FD) factors, a combined total of 22 different key odorants was detected. The potential key odorants with regard to FD factors in all samples were prevailingly alcohols, acids, and terpenes. The highest FD factors were observed in 2-hexanol (2048 in 4MN and 24HR; 1024 in 16MN) and 1-penten-3-ol (2048 in 24HR; 1024 in 4MN and 16MN) in samples providing herbal and green notes. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the tea samples could clearly be discriminated in terms of their aroma profiles and key odorants. The findings of the current study demonstrate that the tea preparation conditions have a significant impact on the organoleptic quality of borage tea.