Investigation of formation of well-known AGEs precursors in cookies using an in vitro simulated gastrointestinal digestive system

Yaman M., Demirci M., Ede-Cintesun E., Kurt E., Faruk Mızrak Ö.

Food Chemistry, vol.373, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 373
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.131451
  • Journal Name: Food Chemistry
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, PASCAL, Aerospace Database, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, Chemical Abstracts Core, Chimica, Communication Abstracts, Compendex, EMBASE, Food Science & Technology Abstracts, MEDLINE, Metadex, Veterinary Science Database, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Keywords: Cookies, Glyoxal, Methylglyoxal, Formation, In vitro
  • Istanbul Medipol University Affiliated: No


The present study investigated the influence of in vitro stimulated digestion system on the content of glyoxal and methylglyoxal in commercial cookies. Glyoxal and methylglyoxal levels in different cookie samples were analyzed before and after in vitro digestion with High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Initial glyoxal and methylglyoxal values ranged between 42.9 and 126.6 µg/100 g, and between 22.9 and 507.3 µg/100 g, respectively. After in vitro digestion, formation of glyoxal and methylglyoxal values were increased up to 645% and 698%, respectively. The results revealed that in vitro stimulated digestion conditions strongly increased the amount of glyoxal and methylglyoxal in cookies. The amount of fructose was found to be more effective on the formation of both GO and MGO than those of glucose and sucrose. Further studies are needed to extensively investigate glyoxal and methylglyoxal formation under in vitro conditions in such foods.