The Impact of EFL Learners’ Negative Emotional Orientations on (Un)Willingness to Communicate in In-person and Online L2 Learning Contexts

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Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, vol.53, no.2, 2024 (SSCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 53 Issue: 2
  • Publication Date: 2024
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s10936-024-10071-y
  • Journal Name: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
  • Journal Indexes: Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI), Scopus, IBZ Online, Periodicals Index Online, Communication & Mass Media Index, Communication Abstracts, ERIC (Education Resources Information Center), Linguistic Bibliography, Linguistics & Language Behavior Abstracts, MLA - Modern Language Association Database, Psycinfo
  • Keywords: Demotivation, L2 anxiety, L2 boredom, L2WTC
  • Istanbul Medipol University Affiliated: Yes


The present study explored how negative emotional orientations (i.e., anxiety, boredom, and demotivation) may contribute to English as a foreign language (EFL) learners’ willingness to communicate (WTC) in in-person and online classes. In doing so, a total of 290 university students majoring in English were recruited to fill in a set of scales. The structural equation modeling analysis indicated that foreign language classroom anxiety (FLA) and L2 demotivation have a direct impact on EFL learners’ in-person and online L2WTC. While L2 demotivation was the strongest significant predictor of learners’ in-person L2WTC, FLA was the strongest predictor of online L2WTC. Additionally, there was a positive correlation among FLA, L2 demotivation, and foreign language classroom boredom (FLB). While FLA demonstrated no direct impact on communication willingness, it exhibited significant indirect paths to in-person L2WTC via the full mediation of L2 demotivation and FLA. Although the result did not show any significant direct impact of FLB on online L2WTC, it had a small yet significant indirect path to online L2WTC through the full mediation of FLA. FLA also revealed indirect significant paths to online L2WTC through FLB and L2 demotivation. The implications for L2 teachers and teacher educators will be further discussed.