Immediate effect of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation on pain and maximal mouth opening in temporomandibular dysfunction: A pilot study

ERGEZEN G., ATILGAN E., Kilicaslan A.

Rawal Medical Journal, vol.47, no.1, pp.125-128, 2022 (ESCI) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 47 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.5455/rmj.94255.27-1625658280
  • Journal Name: Rawal Medical Journal
  • Journal Indexes: Emerging Sources Citation Index (ESCI), Scopus, EMBASE
  • Page Numbers: pp.125-128
  • Keywords: Orofacial pain, Pain threshold, Temporomandibular joint disorders, Therapeutic
  • Istanbul Medipol University Affiliated: Yes


Objective: To evaluate the immediate effect of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) exercises on pain and maximal mouth opening in individuals with temporomandibular disorder (TMD). Methodology: This prospective, quasi experimental pilot study includednine female individuals between the age of 18 to 25 who were diagnosed with TMD by Research Diagnostic criteria for Temporomandibular Disorder (TMD/RDC). PNF exercises were performed for a session with 30 minutes using neck, jaw and tongue patterns with rhythmic stabilization (RS) and combination of isotonics (CI) techniques. Maximal mouth openings were measured with caliper, pain intensities were measured with visual analogue scale and pressure pain thresholds by hand algometer. Results: After PNF application, maximally assisted opening and pain threshold increased, and pain intensity decreased significantly (p < 0.05). PNF had a positive effect on all measurements. Conclusion: PNF exercises increased mouth opening, increased the pressure pain threshold, and decreased pain intensity immediately in individuals with TMD. In TMD, PNF exercises are seen as one of the options that can be used to increase mouth opening and reduce pain.