Sleep hygiene education program during pregnancy: a prospective randomized controlled study

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Turkmen N., Alanya Tosun S., Ayraler A., Akan H.

Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 2024 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Publication Date: 2024
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s00404-024-07471-9
  • Journal Name: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, BIOSIS, CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE
  • Keywords: Maternal mental health, Pregnancy, Primary care, Sleep hygiene, Sleep quality
  • Istanbul Medipol University Affiliated: Yes


Purpose: Pregnancy-related psychophysiological changes are associated with the sleep alterations as the gestational weeks progress. The aim is to evaluate the effectiveness of sleep hygiene education programs during pregnancy. Methods: This prospective randomized controlled study based on pre–post-test after intervention consists of 30 studies and 30 control groups. Pregnant descriptive form, Beck Depression Index (BDI), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and sleep hygiene index (SHI) questionnaires were used. Pregnant women with a score of 15 and above according to BDI were excluded from the study due to depression. Following the application of PSQI and SHI as a pretest, a sleep hygiene training program was applied to the intervention group twice with an interval of 15 days, and PSQI and SHI surveys were repeated as a posttest at the end of 1 month. End points with prespecified hypotheses were changes in sleep quality in different trimesters during antenatal follow-up (primary end point) and changes in sleep quality after the sleep hygiene education intervention from randomization to the end of the intervention period (secondary end point). Results: 90% of all pregnant women had poor sleep quality in the pre-test, and 93.3% in the post-test. In the intervention group, the pre-test PSQI score was 8.10 ± 1.80 and the post-test PSQI score was 8.37 ± 2.05 (p < 0.001). In the control group, the pre-test PSQI score was 8.23 ± 2.54 and the post-test PSQI score was 9.77 ± 2.54, and the worsening of sleep quality became more evident (p < 0.05). While the SHI in intervention group was 16.57 ± 5.64 in the pre-test, it was 10.30 ± 3.78 in the post-test after sleep hygiene training (p < 0.001). In the control group, the pre-test SHI scores increased from 14.50 ± 3.78 to the post-test scores of 16.60 ± 4.36, resulting in a decline in sleep hygiene and sleep quality (p < 0.05). Conclusion: As the gestational week progressed, the deterioration in sleep quality increased. The poor sleep quality improved significantly after sleep hygiene education counseling. It is recommended to add sleep-related screenings to routine pregnancy follow-ups and to provide sleep hygiene education.