The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of bulk-fill flowable composites on cuspal deflection and fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth. Forty-two maxillary premolars were subjected to endodontic treatment followed by the preparation of mesioocclusodistal cavities. Teeth were divided into six groups according to restorative materials as follows: Group 1: Clearfil Majesty Flow and Clearfil Majesty Posterior; Group 2: Venus Bulk Fill and Clearfil Majesty Posterior; Group 3: Clearfil Majesty Posterior; Group 4: Vertise Flow and Clearfil Majesty Posterior; Group 5: SDR and Clearfil Majesty Posterior; and Group 6: x-tra base and Clearfil Majesty Posterior. A single-step self-etch adhesive (OptiBond All-in-One) was applied to all groups, except Group 4. The cavities were restored with a centripetal incremental insertion technique and flowable composites using a 2-mm-thick base material, except for Group 3. The distance between cusp tips was measured before and after the cavity preparations, after the restorations, and after thermal cyclus with a digital micrometer. After measuring, each tooth was subjected to compressive loading with a stainless steel ball (4 mm diameter) perpendicular to the occlusal surface with a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min, and mean loads necessary to fracture were recorded in Newtons. The data were statistically analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis test. No statistically significant differences were found between groups in fracture strength or cuspal deflections (p > 0.05). Bulk-fill flowable composite bases did not change the cuspal deflection or fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth, compared with that of a conventional flowable base and conventional resin composite.