Investigation of The Relationship Between Dietary Habits Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Adolescents By Gender and Body Mass Index (BMI)


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Alp B., Özyürek Arpa F.

The Second International Conference on Applied Medical Sciences 2023 (ICAMS-II) and the International Conference on Enhancing Clinical Nutrition in Palestine (ECNAD), Ghazzah, Palestine, 14 - 16 March 2023, pp.55

  • Publication Type: Conference Paper / Summary Text
  • City: Ghazzah
  • Country: Palestine
  • Page Numbers: pp.55
  • Istanbul Medipol University Affiliated: Yes

Abstract

Introduction and Objective: Adolescent nutrition is a period in which acquired habits significantly affect future years of life. Correct nutrition knowledge gained at this age reduces the risk of disease in later years. This study aimed to determine the nutritional status of individuals in adolescence, evaluate dietary protein intake, measure physical activity levels, and examine cardiovascular disease trends in terms of nutritional habits and anthropometric measurements. 

Methods and Materials: This study was carried out with adolescents aged between 13-18 who were educated in a private high school in Istanbul between November 2021 and February 2022. The data of the study were obtained questionnaire using the face-to-face interview. Sociodemographic characteristics, physical activity status, and nutritional habits of the adolescents were questioned, and anthropometric measurements were taken. A 24-hour retrospective food consumption record was taken to determine the daily energy and nutrient intake of adolescents. Participants' dietary habits were measured by the Eating Habits Index (Beslenme Alışkanlıkları İndeski-BAI) and the DASH diet score. In addition participants' cardiovascular disease risk trends were evaluated by using the degree of adaptation to the DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stopping Hypertension) diet index. 

Results: It was determined that 12.3% of the participants had the cardiovascular disease in their mothers and 17.3% in their fathers. 18.9% of the participants were overweight and 18.9% were obese. There is a statistically significant difference between gender and BMI category distribution (p=0.010). The mean BMI values were found to be 21.9±3.7 kg/m2 in girls and 23.6±4.9 kg/m2 in boys. A significant difference was found between gender and BMI values (p=0.035). Participants were non-compliant with the DASH diet with an equal proportion of 93.4%. When the participants' DASH diet scores were examined, the nutrient with the highest score was found to be protein in both male and female participants. When the BAI compliance categories of the participants were compared with the BMI categories, 65.2% and 47.8% of overweight and obese adolescents, respectively, were in the intermediate-risk group. 

Conclusions: It is recommended that young people make a habit of eating in accordance with the DASH diet recommendations. More scientific studies can be done to have detailed information about adolescents' dietary habits and food choices, DASH diet compliance, and disease risks.