Outcomes and prognostic factors in metastatic renal cell carcinoma patients with brain metastases

Dogan I., Iribas A., Paksoy N., Vatansever S., BAŞARAN M.

Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics, vol.19, no.2 S, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 19 Issue: 2 S
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.4103/jcrt.jcrt_972_22
  • Journal Name: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, CAB Abstracts, CINAHL, MEDLINE, Veterinary Science Database
  • Keywords: Brain metastases, prognosis, renal cell carcinoma
  • Istanbul Medipol University Affiliated: No


Background: To evaluate the outcomes and prognostic factors in patients with brain metastatic renal cell carcinoma (bmRCC). Methods: The data of 322 patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma, taken between 2012 and 2020, were retrospectively reviewed. Overall survival (OS) and prognostic factors were evaluated with Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox regression analysis. Results: Forty (12.4%) of the patients had bmRCC. Seventeen (42.5%) of the patients were de novo metastatic, and nine (22.5%) of the patients had brain metastases at presentation. Twenty-four (60%) patients previously had received various therapies (tyrosine kinase inhibitor or checkpoint inhibitors). After brain metastases developed, 35 (87.5%) of the patients received brain radiotherapy (whole-brain radiotherapy or stereotactic radiosurgery), and twenty-five (62.5%) patients received different systemic therapies. Nine patients received sunitinib, nine received pazopanib, five received nivolumab, and two received axitinib. The median OS was 8.8 months (range: 2.9-14.6) for all patients with bmRCC. In univariate analysis, the number of brain metastasis (P = 0.35), the site of brain metastasis (left, right or bilateral) (P = 0.79), the largest size of brain metastasis (P = 0.45), the number of extracranial metastatic sites (P = 0.81), de novo metastatic disease (P = 0.17), primary tumor site (left or right) (P = 0.90), and tumor grade (P = 0.09) were not statistically significant factors on OS. However, age (P = 0.02), a history of nephrectomy (P < 0.001), receiving brain radiotherapy (P = 0.005), and type of systemic treatment (P = 0.04) were statistically significant. Only, the effect of brain radiotherapy on OS (P = 0.01) was confirmed in multivariate analysis. Conclusions: In this study, we observed that the prognosis of patients with bmRCC was poor. Despite a small number of patients, we detected that the effect of tyrosine kinase inhibitors and nivolumab was comparable, and receiving brain radiotherapy was a prognostic factor for OS.