Mrna-based cancer vaccines: A therapeutic strategy for the treatment of melanoma patients


Bidram M., Zhao Y., Shebardina N. G., Baldin A. V., Bazhin A. V., Ganjalikhany M. R., ...More

Vaccines, vol.9, no.10, 2021 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Review
  • Volume: 9 Issue: 10
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.3390/vaccines9101060
  • Journal Name: Vaccines
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, BIOSIS, EMBASE, Directory of Open Access Journals
  • Keywords: Delivery systems, Immune checkpoint, Melanoma cancer, MRNA vaccine, Therapeutic
  • Istanbul Medipol University Affiliated: No

Abstract

Malignant melanoma is one of the most aggressive forms of cancer and the leading cause of death from skin tumors. Given the increased incidence of melanoma diagnoses in recent years, it is essential to develop effective treatments to control this disease. In this regard, the use of cancer vaccines to enhance cell-mediated immunity is considered to be one of the most modern immunotherapy options for cancer treatment. The most recent cancer vaccine options are mRNA vaccines, with a focus on their usage as modern treatments. Advantages of mRNA cancer vaccines include their rapid production and low manufacturing costs. mRNA-based vaccines are also able to induce both humoral and cellular immune responses. In addition to the many advantages of mRNA vaccines for the treatment of cancer, their use is associated with a number of challenges. For this reason, before mRNA vaccines can be used for the treatment of cancer, comprehensive information about them is required and a large number of trials need to be conducted. Here, we reviewed the general features of mRNA vaccines, including their basis, stabilization, and delivery methods. We also covered clinical trials involving the use of mRNA vaccines in melanoma cancer and the challenges involved with this type of treatment. This review also emphasized the combination of treatment with mRNA vaccines with the use of immune-checkpoint blockers to enhance cell-mediated immunity.