A hybrid decision-making approach for the service and financial-based measurement of universal health coverage for the E7 economies

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Shi X., Li J., Wang F., DİNÇER H., YÜKSEL S.

International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, vol.16, no.18, 2019 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier


The aim of this study is to measure universal health coverage in Emerging 7 (E7) economies. Within this framework, five different dimensions and 14 different criteria are selected by considering the explanations of World Health Organization and United Nations regarding universal health coverage. While weighting the dimensions and criteria, the Decision-making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL) is considered with the triangular fuzzy numbers. Additionally, Multi-Objective Optimization on the basis of Ratio Analysis (MOORA) approach is used to rank E7 economies regarding Universal Health Coverage (UHC) performance. The novelty of this study is that both service and financial based factors are taken into consideration at the same time. Additionally, fuzzy DEMATEL and MOORA methodologies are firstly used in this study with respect to the evaluation of universal health coverage. The findings show that catastrophic out of pocket health spending, pushed below an international poverty line and annual growth rate of real Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita are the most significant criteria for universal health coverage performance. Moreover, it is also concluded that Russia is the country that has the highest universal health coverage performance whereas China, India and Brazil are in the last ranks. It can be understood that macroeconomic conditions play a very significant role on the performance of universal health coverage. Hence, economic conditions should be improved in these countries to have better universal health coverage performance. Furthermore, it is necessary to establish programs that provide exemptions or lower out-of-pocket expenditures which will not prevent the use of health services. This situation can protect people against the financial risks related to health expenditures. In addition to them, it is also obvious that high population has also negative influence on the countries such as, China and India. It indicates that it would be appropriate for these countries to make population planning for this purpose.