Objective: To assess the correlation between the number of excised neural fibers and degree of pain relief following laparoscopic presacral neurectomy (LPSN). Materials and Methods: In this before and after study, 20 patients with severe midline dysmenorrhea [Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) >80 mm] unresponsive to medical therapy were consecutively enrolled. All patients underwent LPSN. The superior hypogastric plexus was excised and sent for histologic confirmation. Two pathologists counted the number of neural fibers in the surgically removed tissue. VAS was used for pain assessment before and 2nd, 3rd, 6th, and 12th months after the operations. Results: Out of the initial 20 patients undergoing LPSN, eight were excluded from the final analysis due to intraoperative diagnosis of endometriosis; therefore, the remaining 12 patients were evaluated. The pain scores significantly decreased at each follow-up visit compared with the preoperative period (p=0.002). The pathologists, who were blinded, reported the median (minimum-maximum) neural fiber count as 46 (20-85) and 47 (18-83). No significant correlation was demonstrated between the number of excised neural fibers and the amount of pain relief following LPSN. Conclusion: LPSN is an effective surgical procedure to control primary dysmenorrhea. Our preliminary results revealed that the degree of pain relief in cases of severe midline dysmenorrhea was not related to the amount of excised neural tissue in LPSN.