Turkish adaptation of the self-stigma of stuttering scale (4S): Study of validity and reliability (4S-TR)

Tiryaki N., ÖZDEMİR R. S., Karsan Ç., Boyle M. P.

Journal of Fluency Disorders, vol.78, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 78
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.jfludis.2023.106020
  • Journal Name: Journal of Fluency Disorders
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, PASCAL, BIOSIS, CINAHL, Communication & Mass Media Index, Communication Abstracts, Educational research abstracts (ERA), Linguistic Bibliography, Linguistics & Language Behavior Abstracts, MLA - Modern Language Association Database, Psycinfo
  • Keywords: Assessment, Self-stigma, Stereotype, Stuttering
  • Istanbul Medipol University Affiliated: Yes


Purpose: This study aimed to adapt the Self-Stigma of Stuttering Scale (4S) into Turkish and evaluate its factor structure, reliability, and validity in Turkish culture. Methods: The original 4S scale was translated into Turkish (4S-TR) using a forward-backward translation technique and was administered to 350 adults who stutter (AWS). To discover latent variables evaluated on the scale, two-factor analyses were performed. Internal consistency and temporal stability were calculated to ensure reliability. Test-retest reliability correlation scores were calculated with multiple applications of the scale within about two weeks. To verify construct validity, participants also completed the Turkish versions of the Self-Esteem Rating Scale-Short Form (BSDÖ-KF) and the Satisfaction with Life Scale(YDÖ). Results: The explanatory factor analysis showed three factors explaining 74.76 % of the total variance. The findings were also validated by confirmatory factor analysis. High levels of internal consistency (r = .89) and test-retest reliability (r = .96) were obtained. In terms of construct validity, our findings revealed that self-stigma has a significant negative correlation with self-esteem (r = −.41) and life satisfaction (r = −.38) as was predicted. Conclusions: The findings demonstrate preliminary evidence that the 4S-TR is a viable and valid instrument for self-stigma evaluation in three domains (stigma awareness, stereotype agreement, and self-concurrence). The 4S-TR can be applied for research and clinical purposes in Turkish.