Radial shock-wave therapy for frozen shoulder patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a pilot trial comparing two different energy levels

Saldiran T. Ç., Yazgan P., Akgöl A. C., MUTLUAY F.

European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine, vol.58, no.3, pp.412-422, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier


BACKGROUND: Extracorporeal shock-wave therapy (ESWT) is highly recommended for the management of orthopedic shoulder pathologies. Yet, the clinical relevance of the dose difference effect of radial ESWTapproaches in the management of frozen shoulder patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus remains uncertain. AIM: The aim was to examine the short-term effects of medium-and high-energy levels of radial ESWT(rESWT) in the treatment of frozen shoulder patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. DESIGN: Prospective clinical pilot study. SETTING: This study was conducted in an outpatient clinic. POPULATION: Thirty-nine patients who had frozen shoulder untreated for at least 3 months, diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus for ≥3 years were included. METHODS: The patients were randomly allocated to receive either high-energy rESWT(hrESWT), or medium-energy rESWT(mrESWT) or placebo at 8 Hz twice a week for six weeks. The primary outcome measure was pain, evaluated by the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) Score. Secondary outcome measures were function evaluated by the Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI) Score, and shoulder active range of motion (AROM). The mechanical properties of the deltoid and trapezius muscles were assessed using the MyotonPRO(Myoton AS, Tallinn, Estonia). RESULTS: The mrESWT resulted in statistically significant reductions in night pain at 6 weeks (ηp2=0.27, P=0.003). Significantly improved function (SPADIscores: -35.42±21.29 vs.-29.59±22.60; ηp2=0.39, P<0.001) was found in both hrESWT and mrESWT group by 6 weeks. Significantly higher mean shoulder AROM values were recorded for external rotation (ηp2=0.53, P<;0.001), and internal rotation (ηp2=0.21, P=0.020), in the hrESWT group at the 6th week. A significantly improved resting tone (ηp2=0.58) and stiffness of deltoid muscle (ηp2=0.62) were found in the mrESWT group (P<;0.001). The trapezius muscle resting tone reduced with hrESWT (ηp2=0.17, P=0.033). CONCLUSIONS: Regardless of the energy levels, rESWTappears to be an effective therapeutic intervention for frozen shoulder patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in the short-term results. CLINICALREHABILITATIONIMPACT: Our results suggest that this rESWTcan be a useful strategy for the rehabilitation of frozen shoulder patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. This is the first study on dose difference effectiveness in terms of the clinical significance of rESWT which is key to transfer research evidence into practice.