The effect of granulocyte colony stimulating factor on genotoxicity in allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation donors: a prospective case-control study

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ÇAKMAKLI H. F., Gökçe H., Söylemez E., TOPÇUOĞLU P., Kayaaltı Z., İLERİ D. T.

Turkish Journal of Pediatrics, vol.65, no.5, pp.809-821, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 65 Issue: 5
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.24953/turkjped.2023.469
  • Journal Name: Turkish Journal of Pediatrics
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, CAB Abstracts, Veterinary Science Database, TR DİZİN (ULAKBİM)
  • Page Numbers: pp.809-821
  • Keywords: comet assay, genotoxicity tests, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, hematopoietic stem cell donor, hematopoietic stem cell mobilization, micronucleus tests, peripheral blood stem cell transplantation, tissue donor
  • Istanbul Medipol University Affiliated: Yes


Background. Every year, thousands of donors are exposed to granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) for stem cell mobilization in hematopoietic stem cell transplantations (HSCT). Previous studies about the genotoxicity of G-CSF were inconclusive. In this study, the genotoxic effects of G-CSF in peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) donors were evaluated prospectively by using three different validated and reliable methods for the first time in the literature to the best of our knowledge. Methods. Donors of PBSC transplantation (n=36), who received G-CSF were evaluated for genotoxicity by micronucleus test (MNT), nuclear division index (NDI), and comet assay (CA). Genotoxic effects are expected to cause an increase in MNT and CA values and decrease in NDI. Blood samples were collected at three time-points (TP): before starting G-CSF (TP1), after G-CSF for five days (TP2), and one month after the last dose (TP3). Sixteen controls were included for baseline comparison of genotoxicity tests. CD34 cell counts and hemograms were also analyzed. Results. MNT and CA parameters; comet and tail length, tail DNA%, and tail moment, showed no change in time whereas another CA parameter, Olive’s tail moment (OTM) was increased significantly at TP3 compared to both baseline and TP2 (p=0.002 and p=0.017, respectively). Nuclear division index decreased significantly at TP2 (p<0.001), then increased above baseline at TP3 (p=0.004). Baseline comparison with controls showed higher MN frequency in donors without statistical significance (p=0.059). Whereas, CA results were significantly higher in controls. CD34 cell count showed moderate positive correlation with white blood cell count at TP2 (Pearson R=0.495, p=0.004). Conclusions. Our results showed the genotoxic effect of G-CSF in healthy donors, in two of the three tests performed, short-term effect in NDI, and long-lasting effect in OTM. So, this study provides novel information for the debate about the genotoxicity of G-CSF and supports the need for further studies with a larger sample size and longer follow-up.