Multidimensional Index Modulation for 5G and beyond Wireless Networks

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Dogan Tusha S., Tusha A., Basar E., ARSLAN H.

Proceedings of the IEEE, vol.109, no.2, pp.170-199, 2021 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 109 Issue: 2
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.1109/jproc.2020.3040589
  • Journal Name: Proceedings of the IEEE
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, PASCAL, Aerospace Database, Applied Science & Technology Source, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), Biotechnology Research Abstracts, Communication Abstracts, Compendex, Computer & Applied Sciences, INSPEC, Metadex, zbMATH, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Page Numbers: pp.170-199
  • Keywords: Radio frequency, Slot antennas, 5G mobile communication, Wireless networks, Modulation, Ultra reliable low latency communication, Complexity theory, 1-D, enhanced mobile broadband (eMBB), index modulation (IM), massive machine-type communication (mMTC), multidimensional, orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing with IM (OFDM-IM), spatial modulation (SM), ultrareliable low-latency communication (URLLC)
  • Istanbul Medipol University Affiliated: Yes


Index modulation (IM) provides a novel way for the transmission of additional data bits via the indices of the available transmit entities compared with classical communication schemes. This study examines the flexible utilization of existing IM techniques in a comprehensive manner to satisfy the challenging and diverse requirements of 5G and beyond services. After spatial modulation (SM), which transmits information bits through antenna indices, application of IM to orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) subcarriers has opened the door for the extension of IM into different dimensions, such as radio frequency (RF) mirrors, time slots, codes, and dispersion matrices. Recent studies have introduced the concept of multidimensional IM by various combinations of 1-D IM techniques to provide higher spectral efficiency (SE) and better bit error rate (BER) performance at the expense of higher transmitter (Tx) and receiver (Rx) complexity. Despite the ongoing research on the design of new IM techniques and their implementation challenges, proper use of the available IM techniques to address different requirements of 5G and beyond networks is an open research area in the literature. For this reason, we first provide the dimensional-based categorization of available IM domains and review the existing IM types regarding this categorization. Then, we develop a framework that investigates the efficient utilization of these techniques and establishes a link between the IM schemes and 5G services, namely, enhanced mobile broadband (eMBB), massive machine-type communications (mMTCs), and ultrareliable low-latency communication (URLLC). In addition, this work defines key performance indicators (KPIs) to quantify the advantages and disadvantages of IM techniques in time, frequency, space, and code dimensions. Finally, future recommendations are given regarding the design of flexible IM-based communication systems for 5G and beyond wireless networks.