In-situ measurement of anisotropic Young’s modulus in fused deposition modeling printed cantilevers

Tekin E., Çağmel M., Aydın C. O., Ferhanoğlu O., TOY M. F.

Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, vol.33, no.8, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 33 Issue: 8
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1088/1361-6439/acdc34
  • Journal Name: Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, PASCAL, Aerospace Database, Communication Abstracts, Compendex, INSPEC, Metadex, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Keywords: 3D printing, finite-element-analysis, material anisotropy, microsystems
  • Istanbul Medipol University Affiliated: Yes


In this study, we investigate the effect of fused deposition modeling printing direction on the effective Young’s modulus value of cantilevers. Through finite-element simulations and experiments with seven different dimensions and totaling over 100 cantilevers, we have observed the impact of printing direction on cantilever resonance. Unlike the conventional compressive and tensile stress—strain characterization, observation of the resonance allows for in-situ testing on the final device under test during operation. Initially, we observed the bulk filament modulus to be 4.5 GPa based on the optimal match between experiments and realistic finite element models expressing the internal structures of the longitudinal and transverse printed cantilevers. Then, the effective Young’s modulus of the cantilevers is inferred through sweeping the Young’s modulus that provides the best fit between the experiments, conventional cantilever formulations and finite-element simulations with solid, homogeneous, and isotropic cantilever model. Overall, we observed an average effective Young’s modulus of 3.35 GPa for the cantilevers with longitudinal (along the cantilever axis) deposited filaments and an average effective Young’s Modulus of 2.50 GPa for the transverse (perpendicular to the cantilever axis, along the width dimension) deposited Polylactic acid cantilevers. Eventually, simplified shape outline and effective Young’s modulus for the corresponding printing direction eases the subsequent theoretical and simulation analyses. The presented methodology is also applicable to micrometric and sub-micrometric scale serial manufacturing techniques (i.e. two-photon polymerization) where the laser beams steering direction causes anisotropy in the mechanical properties of the device under test.