Antioxidant SMe1EC2 modulates pentose phosphate pathway and glutathione-dependent enzyme activities in tissues of aged diabetic rats

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Ulusu N. N., Gök M., Şakul A. A. S., Ari N., Stefek M., KARASU Ç.

Interdisciplinary Toxicology, vol.10, no.4, pp.148-154, 2017 (Scopus) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 10 Issue: 4
  • Publication Date: 2017
  • Doi Number: 10.1515/intox-2017-0021
  • Journal Name: Interdisciplinary Toxicology
  • Journal Indexes: Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.148-154
  • Keywords: aging, antioxidant, diabetes, glutathione-dependent enzymes, pentose phosphate pathway, rat, SMe1EC2
  • Istanbul Medipol University Affiliated: Yes


The pentose phosphate pathway and glutathione-associated metabolism are the main antioxidant cellular defense systems. This study investigated the effects of the powerful antioxidant SMe1EC2 (2-ethoxycarbonyl-8-methoxy-2,3,4,4a,5,9b-hexahydro-1H-pyrido[4,3-b] indolinium dichloride) on pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) and glutathione-dependent enzyme activities in aged diabetic and aged matched control rats. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin injection in rats aged 13-15 months. Diabetic and control rats were divided into two subgroups, one untreated and one treated with SMe1EC2 (10 mg/kg/day, orally) for 4 months. SMe1EC2 ameliorated body weight loss, but not hyperglycemia of aged diabetic rats. Diabetes resulted in decreased glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST), yet in unchanged glutathione reductase (GR) in the liver of aged diabetic rats. In the liver of the aged control rats, SMe1EC2 did not affect G6PDH, 6PGDH and GR, but it inhibited GST. SMe1EC2 also failed to affect diabetes-induced decline in 6PGDH, it ameliorated G6PDH but produced further decline in GST in the liver of aged diabetic rats. In the kidney of aged rats, G6PDH and GST were found to be comparable among the groups, but diabetes up-regulated 6PGDH and GR; these alterations were prevented by SMe1EC2. In the heart of aged diabetic rats, while GST remained unchanged, the recorded increase in G6PD, 6PGD, GR was prevented by SMe1EC2. Furthermore, an unchanged GR and remarkable increases in G6PD, 6PGD and GST were found in the lung of the aged diabetic group. These alterations were completely prevented by SMe1EC2. The results suggest that in aged rats SMe1EC2 can ameliorate the response of the kidney, heart and lung but not that of the liver against diabetes-induced glucotoxicity by interfering with the activity of redox network enzymes.