Integrated methodology for evaluating the efficiency of airports: A case study in Turkey

Kaya G., Aydın U., KARADAYI M. A., Ülengin F., Ülengin B., İçken A.

Transport Policy, vol.127, pp.31-47, 2022 (SSCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 127
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.tranpol.2022.08.010
  • Journal Name: Transport Policy
  • Journal Indexes: Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), Business Source Elite, Business Source Premier, Geobase, Index Islamicus, PAIS International, Pollution Abstracts, Public Affairs Index, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Page Numbers: pp.31-47
  • Keywords: Super -efficient data envelopment analysis, Social network analysis, Airport efficiency, Truncated bootstrapped regression, Eigenvector centrality, Performance evaluation
  • Istanbul Medipol University Affiliated: Yes


Airports play an important role in the economic development of countries. Efficiency analyses of airports are crucial for providing an important roadmap to airport authorities and for helping to benchmark their airports with respect to a role model. Accordingly, in this study, an integrated analysis comprising a super-efficient data envelopment analysis (DEA) and an eigenvector centrality analysis is conducted. Additionally, a Simar–Wilson bootstrapping approach was used to identify the important factors influencing this efficiency. As a case study, the efficiencies of Turkey's 39 international airports were analyzed, and strategic recommendations were suggested. According to the results of the super-efficient DEA analysis and eigenvector centrality analysis, Istanbul Atatürk (closed as of 2019), Adana, and Diyarbakır airports are the “shining stars.” These airports are operationally efficient and act as role models for other airports. Moreover, the hypothesis testing conducted based on the Simar–Wilson bootstrapping approach shows that the efficiency of airports varies by region. The efficiency of airports in the Mediterranean region, which is used as a reference, was found to be significantly higher than that of airports in Eastern Anatolia, Southeast Anatolia, Central Anatolia, and Marmara regions. There also exists a difference between the efficiencies of private and public terminal operations in the favor of public terminal operations. The efficiency of an airport is also positively influenced by the tourist population and by an increase in the gross domestic product per capita of the corresponding city.