Introduction: The aim of this study was to compare the primary stability of mini-screws with different surface treatments such as resorbable blasting media (RBM) and micro-arc oxidation (MAO) under in vitro orthodontic forces. Material and methods: Thirty-six self-drilling TiAl6V4-ELI grade 23 titanium alloy 1.6 × 8 mm mini-screws were inserted into polyurethane foam blocks and divided into three groups according to surface properties: machine surface (MS), RBM-treated, and MAO-treated. An orthodontic force of 150 g was applied to the mini-screws using NiTi coils. Maximum insertion torque (MIT) and maximum removal torque (MRT) were measured with a digital torque screwdriver during insertion and removal. For each mini-screw, stability measurements were made with the Periotest M device at day 0 and weeks 1, 2, 4, 8, and 12. Results: Significant differences in MIT were observed between all groups in pairwise comparisons (P < 0.001) with the highest value in the MAO-treated group and the lowest in the MS group. The mean MRT values differed in all three groups (P = 0.001). In pairwise comparisons of MRT, only the difference between MS group and RBM-treated group was significant. The highest value was observed in the RBM-treated group, while the lowest value was observed in the MS group. Periotest values were significantly higher in the MAO-treated group than the RBM-treated group at weeks 8 and 12. A positive significant correlation was found between MIT and MRT in all groups. No significant correlation was found between MIT, MRT and Periotest values in all groups. Conclusion: RBM-treated group was significantly higher than the MS group in MIT and MRT values. According to Periotest values, RBM-treated group was found to be significantly more stable than the MAO-treated group at weeks 8 and 12. Therefore, RBM surface treatment was found to be more favourable than other surfaces to increase success rate in clinical applications.