Objectives: Treating gynecological cancer with radical surgery, pelvic radiotherapy, and systemic chemotherapy may lead to pelvic floor dysfunction. Materials and Methods: Lower urinary tract symptoms are common after surgery for gynecological cancer. We used the Urogenital Distress Inventory (UDI)-6, Incontinence Impact Questionnaire (IIQ)-7, and International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Short Form (ICIQ-SF) to compare the severity of urinary incontinence and quality of life between patients who underwent staging surgery for gynecological caner and those who underwent hysterectomy for benign disease. In total, 50 patients with cancer and 50 patients with benign disease were included in the patient and control groups, respectively. Results: There were no significant differences between the groups in terms of preoperative IIQ-7, UDI-6, and ICIQ-SF scores. There was a significant difference between the groups in scores 1 and 12 months after surgery. Postoperative IIQ-7, UDI-6, and ICIQ-SF scores were significantly increased compared to preoperative scores, although there were no significant differences between preoperative and postoperative scores in the control group. Incontinence was present after surgery in 15 (43.2%) and 4 (21.1%) patients in the test and control groups, respectively. In multivariate analyses of variance, surgery for cancer was an independent risk factor for urinary incontinence. Conclusion: Genitourinary symptoms should be evaluated in cancer patients undergoing staging procedure. The quality of life of patients should be assessed in terms of incontinence in the postoperative period.