Synthesis, Structural Investigations, DNA/BSA Interactions, Molecular Docking Studies, and Anticancer Activity of a New 1,4-Disubstituted 1,2,3-Triazole Derivative


Göktürk T., Sakallı Çetin E., Hökelek T., PEKEL H., ŞENSOY Ö., Aksu E. N., ...More

ACS Omega, vol.8, no.35, pp.31839-31856, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 8 Issue: 35
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1021/acsomega.3c03355
  • Journal Name: ACS Omega
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Directory of Open Access Journals
  • Page Numbers: pp.31839-31856
  • Istanbul Medipol University Affiliated: Yes

Abstract

We report herein a new 1,2,3-triazole derivative, namely, 4-((1-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)methoxy)-2-hydroxybenzaldehyde, which was synthesized by copper(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC). The structure of the compound was analyzed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), 1H NMR, 13C NMR, UV-vis, and elemental analyses. Moreover, X-ray crystallography studies demonstrated that the compound adapted a monoclinic crystal system with the P21/c space group. The dominant interactions formed in the crystal packing were found to be hydrogen bonding and van der Waals interactions according to Hirshfeld surface (HS) analysis. The volume of the crystal voids and the percentage of free spaces in the unit cell were calculated as 152.10 Å3 and 9.80%, respectively. The evaluation of energy frameworks showed that stabilization of the compound was dominated by dispersion energy contributions. Both in vitro and in silico investigations on the DNA/bovine serum albumin (BSA) binding activity of the compound showed that the CT-DNA binding activity of the compound was mediated via intercalation and BSA binding activity was mediated via both polar and hydrophobic interactions. The anticancer activity of the compound was also tested by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay using human cell lines including MDA-MB-231, LNCaP, Caco-2, and HEK-293. The compound exhibited more cytotoxic activity than cisplatin and etoposide on Caco-2 cancer cell lines with an IC50 value of 16.63 ± 0.27 μM after 48 h. Annexin V suggests the induction of cell death by apoptosis. Compound 3 significantly increased the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) levels in Caco-2 cells, and the reactive oxygen species (ROS) assay proved that compound 3 could induce apoptosis by ROS generation.