An on-site comparative study of yield factors during glume removal, a primary step in the traditional processing of hulled wheats

Giambanelli E., D'Antuono L. F., HAYRAN O. E., Darbinyan N.

Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, vol.93, no.14, pp.3617-3624, 2013 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 93 Issue: 14
  • Publication Date: 2013
  • Doi Number: 10.1002/jsfa.6208
  • Journal Name: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.3617-3624
  • Keywords: Bulgur, Einkorn, Emmer, Glume removal, Hulled wheats, Processing, Yield factors
  • Istanbul Medipol University Affiliated: No


BACKGROUND: Glume removal represents the preliminary step of hulled wheat grain processing for human consumption. Einkorn and emmer wheat are two hulled species, cultivated in marginal areas, from the Mediterranean to the Caucasian region, and the subject of investigation in this paper. An experiment has been carried out to compare the yield of the traditional process, used in Turkey and Armenia, and an updated Italian procedure, by means of on-plant samplings. RESULTS: Crushed grains represent a product from all the plants examined. However, the relative amounts of fractions of different size and use, according to each country, varied consistently. The main Italian product is whole pearled grain. The calculated yield factors varied in the following ranges: dehulling: 0.73-0.81 kg kg-1; food product: 0.82-0.96 kg kg-1; overall yield: 0.56-0.95 kg kg-1 excluding unwanted losses, and 0.42-0.74 kg kg-1 including unwanted losses. Conclusions: This first comparative assay of hulled wheat processing showed that, not considering the kind of product obtained, glume removal can be carried out with good efficiency in continuously operating traditional plants. Modern schemes, however, allow yielding of intact kernels. Some yield factors were highly affected by the available technology, especially when the process was operating discontinuously. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.