The Impact of Cigarette Smoking, Water-Pipe Use on Hearing Loss/Hearing Impairment: A Cross-Sectional Study

BENER A., Erdogan A., Griffiths M. D.

Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention : APJCP, vol.25, no.1, pp.109-114, 2024 (Scopus) identifier identifier


OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to determine the association between cigarette smoking, waterpipe smoking, and co-morbidity diseases on hearing loss. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1015 patients [386 males (38%) and 629 females (62%)] who were aged are between 25 and 65 years. The study used clinical, physical examinations and Pure-Tone Audiometry (PTA) to assess hearing. Univariate and multivariate stepwise logistic regression analyses were used for the statistical analysis. RESULTS: Out of 1015 patients assessed, 199 were cigarette smokers with hearing loss (21.6%) and 111 waterpipe smokers with hearing loss (12%). There were statistically significant differences between cigarette smokers with hearing loss regarding (p<0.001), gender (p<0.001), BMI (p<0.001), hypertension (p<0.001), tinnitus (p<0.001), vertigo and/or dizziness (p<0.001), and migraine/headaches (p<0.001). Also there were statistically significant differences between waterpipe smokers with hearing loss, none smokers concerning age groups (p<0.001), BMI (p<0.001), using MP3 players (p=0.004), family history of hypertension (p=0.026), ATP III metabolic syndrome (p=0.010), IDF metabolic syndrome (p=0.012), tinnitus (p<0.001), vertigo/dizziness (p<0.001), and migraine/headaches (p=0.025). Multivariate stepwise logistic regression analysis indicated that tinnitus (p<0.001), dizziness (p<0.001), nausea (p=0.001), headaches and migraine (p<=0.003), fatigue (p=0.004), and vertigo (p=0.022) were considered as risk predictors risk hearing loss related cigarette smokers. Also, analysis revealed that tinnitus (p<0.001), nausea (p=0.001), headaches and migraines (p<0.001), Type 2 diabetes mellitus (p<0.001), and vertigo (p=0.021), were considered as risk predictors for hearing loss related waterpipe smokers. CONCLUSION: The present study suggests cigarette smoking and waterpipe smoking, life-style factors are possible risk factors for hearing loss among smoker participants.