Diet, Sleep and Depression: Does Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet Matter?

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BAKIRHAN H., Pehlivan M., Ozyurek F., ÖZKAYA V., Yousefirad N.

Türk Uyku Tıbbı Dergisi, vol.9, no.2, pp.172-179, 2022 (Peer-Reviewed Journal) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 9 Issue: 2
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.4274/jtsm.galenos.2022.15046
  • Journal Name: Türk Uyku Tıbbı Dergisi
  • Journal Indexes: TR DİZİN (ULAKBİM)
  • Page Numbers: pp.172-179
  • Keywords: Mediterranean diet, depression, sleep, nutrition
  • Istanbul Medipol University Affiliated: Yes


Objective: The objective of this research is to examine the relationship between Mediterranean diet pattern, depression, and sleep quality. Materials and Methods: Mediterranean diet adherence score, Beck depression inventory, and Pittsburgh sleep quality index have been applied to volunteering participants (n=250) to examine their adherence to the Mediterranean diet, sleep quality, depression status, and the correlations between these variables have been analysed. Results: Those following the Mediterranean diet pattern at a high level were found to have significantly higher sleep quality and less depression symptoms than those following this diet pattern at poor and moderate level (p<0.001). The Mediterranean diet pattern was found to be positively correlated with sleep quality and negatively correlated with BMI and depression symptoms (r=-0.349, p<0.01, r=-0.135, p<0.05, r=- 0.294, p<0.01). Low levels of depression were found to be associated with more daily consumption of vegetables, fruits, olive oil, less consumption of red meat, sugary/carbonated beverages, and sweet/pastry products, and consumption of sauce types with olive oil/tomato/garlic and olive oil being the most frequently consumed oil types (r=-0.140, r=-0.156, r=-0.169, r=-0.236, r=-0.160, r=-0.160, r=-130, r=-0.184, p<0.05). Daily consumption of vegetables, fruits, olive oil, reduced consumption of red meat and sweet/bakery products, weekly consumption of hazelnuts/ pistachios/almonds/walnuts, and olive oil being the most frequently consumed type of oil are associated with good sleep quality (r=-0.202, r=-0.173, r=-0.244, r=-0.149, r=-0.191, r=-0.171, r=-0.225, p<0.05). Conclusion: Mediterranean diet pattern can be integrated into strategies of sleep quality and mental health improvement, as it has been associated with good sleep quality and lower depression levels.