Two- and three-dimensional anatomy of paranasal sinuses in Arabian foals

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Bahar S., Bolat D., Dayan M. O., Paksoy Y.

Journal of Veterinary Medical Science, vol.76, no.1, pp.37-44, 2014 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 76 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2014
  • Doi Number: 10.1292/jvms.13-0172
  • Journal Name: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.37-44
  • Keywords: 3D modeling, Arabian horse, CT, morphometry, paranasal sinus
  • Istanbul Medipol University Affiliated: Yes


The 2- and 3-dimensional (3D) anatomy and the morphometric properties of the paranasal sinuses of the foal have received little or no attention in the literature. The aim of this study was to obtain details of the paranasal sinuses using multiplane CT imaging to create 3D models and to determine morphological and morphometric data for the sinuses using the 3D models. The heads of five female foals were used in this study. The heads were scanned using computed tomography (CT) in the rostrocaudal direction. After the heads had been frozen, anatomical sections were obtained in the scan position. The 3D models of sinuses and the skull were prepared using MIMICS®. These models were used to assess the surface area and volume of the sinuses, the width, height and orientation of the apertures connecting these sinuses and finally the planar relation of the sinuses with the skull. The right and left sides of all anatomical structures, except the sphenoid sinuses, had symmetric organization on CT images and anatomical sections. The total sinus surface area and volume on both sides were 214.4 cm2 and 72.9 ml, respectively. The largest and the smallest sinuses were the frontal sinus (41.5 ml) and the middle conchal sinus (0.2 ml), respectively. It was found that the planes bounding the sinuses passed through easily palpable points on the head. In conclusion, 3D modeling in combination with conventional sectional imaging of the paranasal sinuses of the foal may help anatomists, radiologists, clinicians and veterinary students. © 2014 The Japanese Society of Veterinary Science.