Reliability, validity, and factorial structure of the Turkish version of the Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory (Turkish FMI)

Karatepe H. T., YAVUZ K. F.

Psychiatry and Clinical Psychopharmacology, vol.29, no.4, pp.472-478, 2019 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 29 Issue: 4
  • Publication Date: 2019
  • Doi Number: 10.1080/24750573.2019.1663582
  • Journal Name: Psychiatry and Clinical Psychopharmacology
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.472-478
  • Keywords: Mindfulness measurement, acceptance, validity measurement, acceptance and commitment therapy, mindfulness, factorial analyses
  • Istanbul Medipol University Affiliated: Yes


OBJECTIVES: Mindfulness is the awareness that emerges through paying attention on purpose, in the present moment, and nonjudgementally to the unfolding of experience moment to moment. Mindfulness-based interventions are frequently used in clinical situations and in establishing psychological well-being in a non-clinical sample as psychological techniques. Therefore, many mindfulness measures have been developed for use in clinical settings and for research purposes. Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory (FMI) is a self-report questionnaire that was developed to measure the trait mindfulness. In this study, we aimed to examine the validity, reliability, and factor structure of the FMI in a Turkish sample. METHODS: Participants were mostly college students (113 female, 93 male) and civil servants. Sociodemographic information, the Turkish version of the FMI, Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II (AAQ-II), Five Facets Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ)–All statistical analyses were performed by using SPSS version 20 and AMOS 23 version. RESULTS: The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for the scale was 0.823, Guttman’s split-half reliability coefficient was 0.828, and test–retest reliability coefficient was 0.895. A positive and statistically significant correlation was found between the Turkish FMI and FFMQ (r = 0.566, p =.000). We found negative and statistically significant results between FMI and AAQ-II scores (r = −0.519 p=.000). We found strong statistical fit indices that can be acceptable for one-factor solution confirmatory factor analysis. CONCLUSIONS: The Turkish version of the FMI has satisfactory convergent and divergent validity, good internal and test–retest reliability with one-factor structure to use in a Turkish sample. We hope that Turkish form of FMI, which is known to be effective in assessing the mindfulness especially in a population that is familiar with the mindfulness practices, will be a useful alternative instrument for Turkish clinicians and researchers.