Cigarettes' use and capabilities-opportunities-motivation-for-behavior model: a multi-country survey of adolescents and young adults

Creative Commons License

Sabbagh H. J., Abdelaziz W., Quritum M., AlKhateeb N. A., Abourdan J., Qureshi N., ...More

Frontiers in Public Health, vol.10, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 10
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.3389/fpubh.2022.875801
  • Journal Name: Frontiers in Public Health
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI), Scopus, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Directory of Open Access Journals
  • Keywords: smoking, anxiety, MPOWER, adolescents, young adults
  • Istanbul Medipol University Affiliated: Yes


The use of cigarettes among adolescents and young adults (AYA) is an important issue. This study assessed the association between regular and electronic-cigarettes use among AYA and factors of the Capability-Motivation-Opportunity-for-Behavior-change (COM-B) model. A multi-country survey was conducted between August-2020 and January-2021, Data was collected using the Global-Youth-Tobacco-Survey and Generalized-Anxiety-Disorder-7-item-scale. Multi-level logistic-regression-models were used. Use of regular and electronic-cigarettes were dependent variables. The explanatory variables were capability-factors (COVID-19 status, general anxiety), motivation-factors (attitude score) and opportunity-factors (country-level affordability scores, tobacco promotion-bans, and smoke free-zones) controlling for age and sex. Responses of 6,989-participants from 25-countries were used. Those who reported that they were infected with COVID-19 had significantly higher odds of electronic-cigarettes use (AOR = 1.81, P = 0.02). Normal or mild levels of general anxiety and negative attitudes toward smoking were associated with significantly lower odds of using regular-cigarettes (AOR = 0.34, 0.52, and 0.75, P < 0.001) and electronic-cigarettes (AOR = 0.28, 0.45, and 0.78, P < 0.001). Higher affordability-score was associated with lower odds of using electronic-cigarettes (AOR = 0.90, P = 0.004). Country-level-smoking-control policies and regulations need to focus on reducing cigarette affordability. Capability, motivation and opportunity factors of the COM-B model were associated with using regular or electronic cigarettes.