Introduction: Mandibular distraction osteogenesis (DO) is frequently used in the management of bone defects and craniofacial deformities, with analgesics commonly administered to relieve acute postoperative pain. This experimental animal study investigated the effects of 2 analgesics, acetaminophen and acemetacin, on bone regeneration after DO. Materials and methods: This study was conducted with 14 mature male New Zealand rabbits (2.8 – 3.2 kg) randomized into 2 groups of 7. Mandibular osteotomies were performed under optimal operating conditions, and a custom-made distractor was applied to the mandible of each subject, with distraction initiated after a 5-day latency period at a rate of 1.0 mm/d (2 0.5 mm/d) for 10 days. Analgesics were administered via oral gavage during the latency period and for the first 5 days of the distraction period for 10 days in total, with group I receiving acetaminophen (200 mg/kg/d) and group II receiving acemetacin (5 mg/kg/d). Subjects were sacrificed and their mandibles dissected at the end of 4 weeks postoperatively. Bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), and histomorphometric analysis was performed to evaluate the quality of newly formed bone. Paired group comparisons of non-normally distributed numerical variables were made using the Mann – Whitney U test, with a P value of <0.05 considered statistically significant. Results: No significant differences in BMC and BMD values of intact bone, newly formed bone, or bone around the pin site were observed between the 2 groups. Histometric analysis also indicated acetaminophen and acemetacin to have similar effects on bone regeneration during distraction. Conclusion: Acemetacin may be an alternative to acetaminophen for treating pain associated with DO, given the similarities in the effects of the 2 analgesics on bone regeneration. However, this finding should be supported by further experimental and human studies.