Efficient spectrum occupancy prediction exploiting multidimensional correlations through composite 2d-lstm models

Creative Commons License

Aygül M. A., Nazzal M., Sağlam M. İ., da Costa D. B., Ateş H. F., ARSLAN H.

Sensors (Switzerland), vol.21, no.1, pp.1-18, 2021 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 21 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.3390/s21010135
  • Journal Name: Sensors (Switzerland)
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Aerospace Database, Aqualine, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), Biotechnology Research Abstracts, CAB Abstracts, Communication Abstracts, Compendex, EMBASE, INSPEC, MEDLINE, Metadex, Veterinary Science Database, Directory of Open Access Journals, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Page Numbers: pp.1-18
  • Keywords: cognitive radio, deep learning, multidimensions, real-world spectrum measurement, spectrum occupancy prediction
  • Istanbul Medipol University Affiliated: Yes


In cognitive radio systems, identifying spectrum opportunities is fundamental to efficiently use the spectrum. Spectrum occupancy prediction is a convenient way of revealing opportunities based on previous occupancies. Studies have demonstrated that usage of the spectrum has a high correlation over multidimensions, which includes time, frequency, and space. Accordingly, recent literature uses tensor-based methods to exploit the multidimensional spectrum correlation. However, these methods share two main drawbacks. First, they are computationally complex. Second, they need to re-train the overall model when no information is received from any base station for any reason. Different than the existing works, this paper proposes a method for dividing the multidimensional correlation exploitation problem into a set of smaller sub-problems. This division is achieved through composite two-dimensional (2D)-long short-term memory (LSTM) models. Extensive experimental results reveal a high detection performance with more robustness and less complexity attained by the proposed method. The real-world measurements provided by one of the leading mobile network operators in Turkey validate these results.