Innovative standard degree-day indicator (SDI) concept and application for monthly energy consumption control

Şen Z.

Energy and Buildings, vol.270, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 270
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.enbuild.2022.112263
  • Journal Name: Energy and Buildings
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, PASCAL, Environment Index, INSPEC, Pollution Abstracts, Public Affairs Index, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Keywords: Consumption, Cooling, Heating, Degree, Energy, Fuzzy, Risk, Probability, Standard
  • Istanbul Medipol University Affiliated: Yes


In practice, monthly temperature records play a major role calculating the heating and cooling degree-days of the air conditioner management in buildings. Classically, heating and cooling degree calculations are based on the comparison of outdoor temperature measurements with a standard level called the base temperature. Truncating the temperature series at a constant base temperature causes heating (deficits) and cooling (surpluses) degrees. Since outdoor temperature records are of random character, future predictions with probabilistic and statistical methods are convenient means for calculations. All previous methodologies in the literature are based on crisp logic with simple mathematical calculations. This paper proposes a new methodological approach by converting the actual temperature record probability distribution function (PDF) into a probabilistic standardized degree indicator (SDI) in normal (Gaussian) PDF form with zero mean and unit standard deviation. Furthermore, as a new evaluation methodology fuzzy logic inference calculations are provided. SDI is divided into seven classes, three for cooling, heating, and a single class for uncooled-unheated states. Heating and cooling degree changes according to SDI values are presented with crisp and fuzzy sets. The application of the methodology is made for Kadıköy urban area on the Asian side of Istanbul, Turkey. In the case of fuzzy set SDI air conditioned operation, it has been determined that there is cooling energy saving of approximately 25% compared to the crisp set. The same is true for the heating degree-day side.