The Effect of COVID-19 Vaccines on Sleep Quality in the Adult Population: A Comparative Study

Kılıç A., AMİL B., ENGİNAR H., Yaghouti L. F., MERT A., AĞARGÜN M. Y.

Sleep and Vigilance, vol.7, no.2, pp.159-170, 2023 (Scopus) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 7 Issue: 2
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s41782-023-00241-8
  • Journal Name: Sleep and Vigilance
  • Journal Indexes: Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.159-170
  • Keywords: BioNTech vaccine, COVID-19, Sinovac vaccine, Sleep quality, Sleepiness
  • Istanbul Medipol University Affiliated: Yes


Purpose: Our study aimed to investigate the possible effects of COVID-19 vaccines on sleep quality and sleepiness in adult population in short, medium and long term. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between 12 July and 1 August 2021. A questionnaire was sent to the mobile phones of 10,042 people registered in the Istanbul Medipol University database. Of the 1026 volunteers who gave informed consent and declared that they met the stated inclusion criteria, 1020 subjects who were unvaccinated or had the first two doses of Sinovac or BionTech vaccine were eligible for the analysis. An online questionnaire including a sociodemographic data form, Pittsburgh Sleep Questionnaire Inventory, Patient Health Questionnaire-9, and Epworth Sleepiness Scale was administered to the participants. The results were analyzed with SPSS 20. Ethical approval of the study dated 24.06.2021 was obtained from the ethics committee of our university. Results: When the unvaccinated and the groups with only 2 doses of BionTech vaccination were compared, the group that has passed 3–6 months since 2 doses of BionTech vaccination (34.6%) had significantly better sleep quality compared to unvaccinated group (14.7%) and groups that have passed 0–1 month (15.1%) and 1–3 months (15.4%) since 2 doses of BioNTech vaccination (Table 3). In the between-group analysis of 2-dose vaccines, those with 2 doses of Sinovac (passed 3–6 months, 90.3%; passed 6–12 months 100%) vaccine had significantly poor quality of sleep compared to group with 2 doses of BioNTech vaccine (passed 3–6 months 65.4%; passed 6–12 months 33.3%), respectively (Table 4). Between groups that passed 0–1 month since vaccination, those who received 3 doses of BioNTech vaccine (7.97 ± 2.49) had significantly worse sleep quality scores than unvaccinated (6.90 ± 2.71), those who received 2 doses of Sinovac (6.26 ± 2.46), those who received 2 dose BioNTech (6.79 ± 2.65), and those who received 2 doses of Sinovac + 1 dose of BioNTech (6.89 ± 2.55) vaccines (Table 5). Conclusions: According to our findings, there was no significant difference in sleep quality between those who were vaccinated with Sinovac and unvaccinated. We can say that those who have 2 doses of BionTech vaccine have better sleep quality in the medium-long term than those who received 2 doses of BionTech vaccine in the short-medium term, also than those who have unvaccinated and 2 doses of Sinovac vaccine. In addition that those who have 3 doses of Biontech vaccine have worse sleep quality in the short term than those who are unvaccinated, those who have 2 doses of Sinovac vaccine, and those who have 2 doses of Biontech vaccine.