Effects of the functional regulator III on profile changes in subjects with maxillary deficiency

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KILIÇ N., Celikoglu M., OKTAY H.

European Journal of Orthodontics, vol.32, no.6, pp.729-734, 2010 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 32 Issue: 6
  • Publication Date: 2010
  • Doi Number: 10.1093/ejo/cjq011
  • Journal Name: European Journal of Orthodontics
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.729-734
  • Istanbul Medipol University Affiliated: Yes


The aim of this study was to determine the hard and soft tissue profile changes in Class III malocclusion subjects following functional regulator III (FR-3) treatment. The material comprised the cephalometric films of 15 patients (11 males and four females; mean ages 10.22 and 10.44 years, respectively) with a Class III malocclusion and a concave profile treated with the FR-3, and a control group of 15 subjects (11 males and four females; mean ages 10.39 and 10.27 years, respectively) with a Class I malocclusion matched for chronological age and observation period with the study group. Fourteen linear and seven angular measurements were measured on the cephalometric films taken before (T1) and after (T2) treatment/observation.The results of the Student's t-test showed that the treatment group had a concave facial profile when compared with the controls. At the end of treatment, the maxilla and surrounding soft tissues showed significant anterior movement (P < 0.001 and P < 0.01, respectively), whereas mandibular growth was restricted. The vertical dimensions increased, the upper incisors proclined, and the lower incisors retroclined significantly (P < 0.001). The FR-3 appliance produced significant improvements in the hard and soft tissues of Class III subjects with a concave profile. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Orthodontic Society.