Evidence for reliability, validity and responsiveness of Turkish Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM)

ÇELİK D., Malkoç M., Martin R.

Rheumatology International, vol.36, no.10, pp.1469-1476, 2016 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 36 Issue: 10
  • Publication Date: 2016
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s00296-016-3485-4
  • Journal Name: Rheumatology International
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.1469-1476
  • Keywords: Cross-cultural adaptation, Ankle and foot, Outcome measurement, Psychometric properties
  • Istanbul Medipol University Affiliated: Yes


Purpose: To translate and culturally adapt the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM) into Turkish and assess the psychometric properties of the translated version. Methods: The FAAM was translated into Turkish according to Beaton’s recommendations and it is called FAAM-T. Ninety-eight patients (39 males, mean ± SD age 35.0 ± 14.0 years; range 16–71 years) with different foot and ankle complaints were included, and the score was completed twice by each participant after 7 days of the first assessment to assess test–retest reliability based on the inter-rater correlation coefficient, whereas Cronbach’s alpha evaluated internal consistency. External validity was evaluated with correlations between the FAAM-T, Foot Function Index (FFI) and Short Form-36 (SF-36). The distribution of floor and ceiling effects was determined. Results: The test–retest reliability was 0.90 for both FAAM-T subscales. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was 0.95 and 0.91 for FAAM-T activity of daily living (ADL) and FAAM-T Sport subscales, respectively. The FAAM-T ADL and Sport subscales demonstrated very good correlation with the FFI (r = 0.70 and 0.63, respectively). The FAAM-T ADL and Sport subscales had a high level of association with physical functioning and the physical component scale (r = 0.71, r = 0.70 and r = 0.51, r = 0.55, respectively; P = 0.001) of the SF-36. The weakest associations were found between the FAAM-T ADL, FAAM-T Sport subscales and the SF-36 the vitality (r = 0.27, P = 0.008 and r = 0.28, P = 0.01, respectively). Conclusions: The study provides preliminary evidence that the FAAM-T is reliable, valid and responsive outcome measurement of patients with foot and ankle pathologies.