The phosphodiesterase (PDE) superfamily comprises enzymes responsible for the cAMP and cGMP degradation to AMP and GMP. PDEs are abundant in the brain, where they are involved in several neuronal functions. High PDE10A abundance was previously observed in the striatum; however its consequences for stroke recovery were unknown. Herein, we evaluated the effects of PDE10A deactivation by TAK-063 (0.3 or 3 mg/kg, initiated 72 h post-stroke) in mice exposed to intraluminal middle cerebral artery occlusion. We found that PDE10A deactivation over up to eight weeks dose-dependently increased long-term neuronal survival, angiogenesis, and neurogenesis in the peri-infarct striatum, which represents the core of the middle cerebral artery territory, and reduced astroglial scar formation, whole brain atrophy and, more specifically, striatal atrophy. Functional motor-coordination recovery and the long-distance plasticity of pyramidal tract axons, which originate from the contralesional motor cortex and descend through the contralesional striatum to innervate the ipsilesional facial nucleus, were enhanced by PDE10A deactivation. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) revealed a set of dopamine receptor-related and neuronal plasticity-related PDE10A targets, which were elevated (e.g., protein phosphatase-1 regulatory subunit 1B) or reduced (e.g., serine/threonine protein phosphatase 1α, β-synuclein, proteasome subunit α2) by PDE10A deactivation. Our results identify PDE10A as a therapeutic target that critically controls post-ischemic brain tissue remodeling and plasticity.