This study aims to establish the biological and chemical profile of Asphodeline liburnica (Scop.) Rchb. root. The antioxidant, antimicrobial, enzyme inhibitory, DNA protection, apoptotic DNA ladder fragmentation analysis, and anti-proliferative of A. liburnica were established using standard assays. In silico study was also performed to understand interactions between quantified anthraquinones and key enzymes of clinical relevance. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were found to be 9.67 mgGAE/g and 1.48 mgRE/g extract, respectively. Chrysophanol was detected as a major anthraquinone. The extract exhibited radical scavenging ability against DPPH and ABTS with values of 13.23 and 66.99 mgTE/g extract, respectively. Good inhibitory activity against tyrosinase was recorded. In silico experiments showed that the anthraquinones were able to establish coordinative bonds with the copper atoms present in the enzymatic cavity of tyrosinase. MTT cell viability test on MDA-MB-231 cells showed that at 0.1 and 1 μg of extracts induced anti-proliferative effect. Apoptotic DNA fragmentation analysis indicated nuclear condensation resulting in DNA fragmentation, which exhibited apoptotic cell death in the presence of A. liburnica. This study has provided insights on the potential usage of A. liburnica which could open new avenues for research and stimulate future interest for the development of safe novel biopharmaceuticals.