New CagL Amino Acid Polymorphism Patterns of Helicobacter pylori in Peptic Ulcer and Non-Ulcer Dyspepsia

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Caliskan R., Polat Sari S., Ercan B., Peker K. D., Omac Sonmez M., Akgul O., ...More

Medicina (Lithuania), vol.58, no.12, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 58 Issue: 12
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.3390/medicina58121738
  • Journal Name: Medicina (Lithuania)
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Directory of Open Access Journals
  • Keywords: Helicobacter pylori, CagL polymorphisms, CagLHM, peptic ulcer, non-ulcer dyspepsia
  • Istanbul Medipol University Affiliated: Yes


Background and Objectives: Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with chronic gastritis, ulcers, and gastric cancer. The H. pylori Type 4 secretion system (T4SS) translocates the CagA protein into host cells and plays an essential role in initiating gastric carcinogenesis. The CagL protein is a component of the T4SS. CagL amino acid polymorphisms are correlated with clinical outcomes. We aimed to study the association between CagL amino acid polymorphisms and peptic ulcer disease (PUD) and non-ulcer dyspepsia (NUD). Materials and Methods: A total of 99 patients (PUD, 46; NUD, 53) were enrolled and screened for H. pylori by qPCR from antrum biopsy samples. The amino acid polymorphisms of CagL were analyzed using DNA sequencing, followed by the MAFFT sequence alignment program to match the amino acid sequences. Results: Antrum biopsy samples from 70 out of 99 (70.7%) patients were found to be H. pylori DNA-positive. A positive band for cagL was detected in 42 out of 70 samples (PUD, 23; NUD, 19), and following this, these 42 samples were sequenced. In total, 27 different polymorphisms were determined. We determined three CagL amino acid polymorphism combinations, which were determined to be associated with PUD and NUD. Pattern 1 (K35/N122/V134/T175/R194/E210) was only detected in PUD patient samples and was related to a 1.35-fold risk (p = 0.02). Patterns 2 (V41/I134) and 3 (V41/K122/A171/I174) were found only in NUD patient samples and were linked to a 1.26-fold increased risk (p = 0.03). Conclusions: We observed three new patterns associated with PUD and NUD. Pattern 1 is related to PUD, and the other two patterns (Patterns 2 and 3) are related to NUD. The patterns that we identified include the remote polymorphisms of the CagL protein, which is a new approach. These patterns may help to understand the course of H. pylori infection.