New generation oral anticoagulant apixaban enhances embryo implantation by increasing integrin β3 expression in rats: A pilot study

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Kopuk S. Y., Ozer N., Cekmez Y., ÇAKIR A., Gurkan K.

Jornal Brasileiro de Reproducao Assistida, vol.26, no.4, pp.589-593, 2022 (ESCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 26 Issue: 4
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.5935/1518-0557.20210122
  • Journal Name: Jornal Brasileiro de Reproducao Assistida
  • Journal Indexes: Emerging Sources Citation Index (ESCI), Scopus, EMBASE, MEDLINE
  • Page Numbers: pp.589-593
  • Keywords: anticoagulant, apixaban, endometrial receptivity, implantation, integrin β3
  • Istanbul Medipol University Affiliated: Yes


Objective: The first aim of this study was to investigate the effect of apixaban on endometrial receptivity via immunohistochemical investigation of integrin β3 expression in pregnant rats. The second aim was to compare the endometrial effects of both subcutaneous and oral anticoagulant drugs in terms of integrin β3 expressions. Methods: A total of 24 rats were selected for this study and divided into three equal groups as control, enoxaparin and apixaban groups. Subcutaneous enoxaparin and oral apixaban were applied for 15 days starting on the first day of pregnancy. On the 15th day of pregnancy, all rats were killed by cervical dislocation, and uterine horns, including pregnancy materials, were investigated for pregnancy success and endometrial receptivity by using immunohistochemical integrin β3 staining. Results: Living, viable fetuses were higher in the apixaban group compared to the control group (p=0.037). Intensity and universality of immunohistochemical staining of integrin β3 for endometrial stroma were detected statistically higher in the apixaban group than the other groups. (p=0.009 for intensity, p=0.014 for universality). Endometrial epithelial and myometrial integrin β3 expression were detected to be identical between the groups (p=0.3). Conclusions: Apixaban enhances endometrial receptivity via increasing integrin β3 expression in rats. This result can lead to further studies to be done in the future.