Evaluation of in vitro antiprotozoal activity of Ajuga laxmannii and its secondary metabolites

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Atay I., Kirmizibekmez H., Kaiser M., AKAYDIN G., Yesilada E., Tasdemir D.

Pharmaceutical Biology, vol.54, no.9, pp.1808-1814, 2016 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 54 Issue: 9
  • Publication Date: 2016
  • Doi Number: 10.3109/13880209.2015.1129542
  • Journal Name: Pharmaceutical Biology
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.1808-1814
  • Keywords: Antiprotozoal activity, flavonoid, iridoid glycosides, Isoorientin, Lamiaceae, plasmodium
  • Istanbul Medipol University Affiliated: Yes


Context Some Ajuga L. (Lamiaceae) species are traditionally used for the treatment of malaria, as well as fever, which is a common symptom of many parasitic diseases. Objective In the continuation of our studies on the identification of antiprotozoal secondary metabolites of Turkish Lamiaceae species, we have investigated the aerial parts of Ajuga laxmannii. Materials and methods The aerial parts of A. laxmannii were extracted with MeOH. The H2O subextract was subjected to polyamide, C18-MPLC and SiO2 CCs to yield eight metabolites. The structures of the isolates were elucidated by NMR spectroscopy and MS analyses. The extract, subextracts as well as the isolates were tested for their in vitro antiprotozoal activities against Plasmodium falciparum, Trypanasoma brucei rhodesiense, T. cruzi and Leishmania donovani at concentrations of 90–0.123 μg/mL. Results Two iridoid glycosides harpagide (1) and 8-O-acetylharpagide (2), three o-coumaric acid derivatives cis-melilotoside (3), trans-melilotoside (4) and dihydromelilotoside (5), two phenylethanoid glycosides verbascoside (6) and galactosylmartynoside (7) and a flavone-C-glycoside, isoorientin (8) were isolated. Many compounds showed moderate to good antiparasitic activity, with isoorientin (8) displaying the most significant antimalarial potential (an IC50 value of 9.7 μg/mL). Discussion and conclusion This is the first report on the antiprotozoal evaluation of A. laxmannii extracts and isolates. Furthermore, isoorientin and dihydromelilotoside are being reported for the first time from the genus Ajuga.