Sensitive and Accurate Determination of Cobalt at Trace Levels by Slotted Quartz Tube-Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry Following Preconcentration with Dispersive Liquid–Liquid Microextraction

Deniz S., Kasa A., Sel S., Büyükpınar Ç., BAKIRDERE S.

Analytical Letters, vol.52, no.5, pp.745-753, 2019 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 52 Issue: 5
  • Publication Date: 2019
  • Doi Number: 10.1080/00032719.2018.1493737
  • Journal Name: Analytical Letters
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.745-753
  • Keywords: Cobalt, dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME), slotted quartz tube-flame atomic absorption spectrometry (SQT-FAAS)
  • Istanbul Medipol University Affiliated: No


Slotted quartz tube-flame atomic absorption spectrometry (SQT-FAAS) was used as a sensitive technique for the determination of cobalt, an element has toxic effects on living organisms at high doses. For the preliminary preconcentration of cobalt prior to the analysis, dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction (DLLME) was used. The instrument is equipped with a SQT to further increase the sensitivity by increasing the residence time of cobalt atoms in the light path emitted by a hollow cathode lamp. In the complex formation step, pH, the volume of buffer solution, the concentration of 1,5-diphenylcarbazone, and the volume of ligand were optimized. In addition, all of the system parameters, including the type and volume of the extraction solvent, dispersant type and volume of solvent, type of salt and the volume for the dispersion liquid–liquid microextraction, were optimized to obtain the lowest detection limit. Under the optimum conditions, the detection power of FAAS was improved by a factor of 86.56 fold using DLLME-SQT-FAAS. The limit of detection for the DLLME-SQT-FAAS system was 0.97 µg L −1 . The applicability of the developed method was verified in tap and waste water samples by spiking measurements. The percentage recovery values for these were determined to be 91.7% and 111.0%, respectively.