Effects of Hardaliye, a Fermented Grape Drink, on Oxidative Stress, Lipid Profile, and Blood Pressure in Young Soccer Players: A Randomized Controlled Trial


Journal of the American Nutrition Association, vol.43, no.4, pp.356-364, 2024 (Scopus) identifier identifier


Objective: Hardaliye, a traditional fermented grape juice, can prevent imbalances in the antioxidant defense systems of soccer players. Hardaliye is mainly produced through the fermentation of grapes, sour cherry leaves, and mustard seeds and is consumed as a drink. This study was aimed at investigating the effects of hardaliye consumption on oxidative stress parameters, lipid profile, and blood pressure in young elite soccer players. Methods: In this single-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-design study, while the participants in one of the groups consumed 250 mL/d of hardaliye drink (Hardaliye Group), the participants in the other group consumed placebo drink (Placebo Group) for 28 days. Three-day food record and blood samples were taken from the soccer players and their blood pressure was measured. Results: Nutrient intakes in both groups were similar at the beginning and end of the study (p > 0.05). Dietary carbohydrates and vitamin A, E, and C intakes were below the recommended levels in both groups. Hardaliye consumption significantly increased the serum total antioxidant capacity level but significantly decreased serum total oxidation status, oxidative stress index, malondialdehyde, and nitric oxide levels compared to the Placebo Group (p < 0.05). Lipid parameters and diastolic blood pressure levels were not significantly different between the groups (p > 0.05). Hardaliye consumption significantly decreased systolic blood pressure compared to that in the Placebo Group (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Hardaliye consumption in young elite soccer players showed antioxidative effects and decreased systolic blood pressure but did not affect their lipid profiles.