Although recent developments in living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) yield promising results, a size mismatch between the weights of the graft and the recipient remains a significant problem. Recipients of LDLT may have hyperdynamic splanchnic circulations resulting in graft hyperperfusion and increased portal vein flow leading to small-for-size syndrome. Splenic artery ligation is one of the least invasive measures to prevent occurrence of this syndrome. Despite its potentially devastating consequences, splenic infarction following splenic artery ligation has received little attention to date. Herein we have reported a patient who developed a splenic abscess due to a splenic infarction following splenic artery ligation during LDLT. © 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.