Comparison of the apoptotic effects of topically applied papaverine, diltiazem, and nitroprusside to internal thoracic artery

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Unal O., Ulukan M. O., Bakuy V., Kaytaz B., ARTAN S., Aral E., ...More

Brazilian Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery, vol.35, no.5, pp.626-633, 2020 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 35 Issue: 5
  • Publication Date: 2020
  • Doi Number: 10.21470/1678-9741-2019-0251
  • Journal Name: Brazilian Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Directory of Open Access Journals
  • Page Numbers: pp.626-633
  • Keywords: Mammary Arteries, Vasodilatador Agents, Coronary Artery Bypass, Apoptosis, Diabetes Mellitus, Diltiazem, Biotin, Hematoxylin
  • Istanbul Medipol University Affiliated: Yes


Objective: To detect and to compare the apoptotic effects of intraoperatively topically applied diltiazem, papaverine, and nitroprusside. Methods: Internal thoracic artery segments of ten patients were obtained during coronary bypass grafting surgery. Each internal thoracic artery segment was divided into four pieces and immersed into four different solutions containing separately saline (Group S), diltiazem (Group D), papaverine (Group P), and nitroprusside (Group N). Each segment was examined with both hematoxylin-eosin and the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) method in order to determine and quantify apoptosis. Results: Apoptotic cells were counted in 50 microscopic areas of each segment. No significant difference was observed among the four groups according to hematoxylin-eosin staining. However, the TUNEL method revealed a significant increase in mean apoptotic cells in the diltiazem group when compared with the other three groups (Group S=4.25±1.4; Group D=13.31±2.8; Group N=9.48±2.09; Group P=10.75±2.37). The differences between groups were significant (P=0.0001). No difference was observed between the samples of the diabetic and non-diabetic patients in any of the study groups. Conclusion: The benefit of topically applied vasodilator drugs must outweigh the potential adverse effects. In terms of apoptosis, diltiazem was found to have the most deleterious effects on internal thoracic artery graft segments. Of the analyzed medical agents, nitroprusside was found to have the least apoptotic activity, followed by papaverine. Diabetes did not have significant effect on the occurrence of apoptosis in left internal thoracic artery grafts.