Fatigue survival and failure resistance of titanium versus zirconia implant abutments with various connection designs

ŞEN N., Us Y. O.

Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry, vol.122, no.3, 2019 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier


Statement of problem: Data regarding the effect of connection design and abutment material on the fatigue survival and failure resistance of implant abutments are scarce. Purpose: The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate the effect of connection design and abutment material on the fatigue survival and failure resistance of implant abutment assemblies. Material and methods: Three types of implants (n=18, N=54) and 6 groups of abutments (n=9, N=54) with different connection designs—internal conical (IC), internal tri-channel (IT), and external hexagonal (EH)—and abutment materials—titanium (T) and zirconia (Z)—were investigated. All the abutments were restored with identical central incisor crowns. Fatigue testing, including thermal and mechanical aging, was performed in a mastication simulator (Esetron Smart Robotechnologies) for up to 1.2×106 cycles with a load of 50 N at an angle of 45 degrees. Then, the surviving specimens were subjected to failure resistance testing in a universal testing machine (Shimadzu AG-IS; Shimadzu Corp) at a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/min. The maximum loads to failure (N) were recorded. Survival performance of the specimens throughout the fatigue testing was examined by the Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. The failure loads were analyzed by using the Kruskal-Wallis test followed by the Mann-Whitney U tests with Bonferroni-Holm correction (α=.05). Results: All the specimens of groups ICT, ITT, ITZ, and EHT survived fatigue testing, whereas 2 specimens from group ICZ and 3 specimens from EHZ failed. Statistically significant differences were found among the groups, based on the results of maximum failure loads (P<.05). The highest mean failure load was obtained in the ICT group (1069 ±182 N), followed by the ITT (926 ±197 N), EHT (873 ±126 N), ITZ (568 ±81 N), EHZ (311 ±45 N), and ICZ (287 ±63 N) groups. Conclusions: Abutment material and connection design affected the fatigue survival of implant abutment assemblies. Implant abutment assemblies with a titanium-titanium interface revealed higher failure resistance than the implant abutment assemblies with a titanium-zirconia interface.