Aim: The aim of the study was to describe the level of knowledge and the attitudes of Turkish nursing and midwifery students toward tuberculosis in an attempt to understand and determine whether there is a need for improvement in nursing and midwifery education regarding tuberculosis. Method: The research is a descriptive study conducted at four nursing or midwifery schools in Turkey. The sample was composed of 615 students who were first-, second-, third-, or fourth-year nursing and midwifery students. Data were collected using the Knowledge and Attitudes toward Treatment and Control of Tuberculosis Questionnaire. Results: The level of tuberculosis knowledge was poor [7.22 ± 1.92 (range: 2-9)]. The attitudes of nursing and midwifery students toward tuberculosis were generally negative. Only 5.9% of the sample would prefer to care for patients with tuberculosis. Students who received tuberculosis lectures/education had higher levels of knowledge and more positive attitudes toward tuberculosis than their peers who did not receive such education. Conclusion: In order to fight effectively against tuberculosis, positive attitudes toward tuberculosis must be developed among health care teams, and awareness of tuberculosis via theoretical and practical education, starting from the initial semesters of the professional education, must be increased. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.