Covid-19: Pathogenesis, genetic polymorphism, clinical features and laboratory findings


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ÖZTÜRK R., TAŞOVA Y., AYAZ A.

Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences, vol.50, no.SI-1, pp.638-657, 2020 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Review
  • Volume: 50 Issue: SI-1
  • Publication Date: 2020
  • Doi Number: 10.3906/sag-2005-287
  • Journal Name: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, CAB Abstracts, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Veterinary Science Database, TR DİZİN (ULAKBİM)
  • Page Numbers: pp.638-657
  • Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19, pathogenesis, genetic polymorphism, clinical features, laboratory findings
  • Istanbul Medipol University Affiliated: Yes

Abstract

COVID-19 caused by a novel agent SARS-CoV-2 progressed to a pandemic condition and resulted in a major public health concern worldwide, leading to social and economic issues at the same time. The pathogenesis of COVID-19 starts with the bonding of the virus to ACE2 receptors expressed in many tissues, and the triggered excessive immune response plays a critical role in the course of the disease. The cytokine storm that occurs upon excessive production of pro-inflammatory cytokines is considered responsible for the severe progression of the disease and the organ damage. However, the accurate pathophysiological mechanism of the disease, which progresses with various clinical presentations, is still substantially unknown. While various studies have been conducted on the effect of genetic polymorphism on the course and severity of the disease, the presence of a significant effect has not been proven yet. The clinical course of the disease is variable, with clinical representation ranging from 81% mild course to 14% severe course along with 5% critical course in patients. Asymptomatic course is considered to be higher than expected, although its frequency is not known exactly. Older adults and those with comorbidities are exposed to a more severe disease course. The disease progress with various symptoms, such as fever, cough, dyspnea, malaise, myalgia, taste and smell dysfunctions, diarrhea, and headache. A range of complications (acute respiratory distress syndrome, thromboembolic conditions, arrhythmia and cardiac events, secondary infections) could be seen during the course of the disease. Varied laboratory tests are vital to determine these verity and prognosis of the disease, along with the condition and exposure of the affected systems during thecourse of COVID-19.