Investigation of Optimum Production Conditions and the Stability of β-Cyclodextrin-Perfluorocarbon Nanocone Clusters for Histotripsy Applications

Mustafa W., Hall S., Huynh L., Mannasse R., Lüleburgaz S., Vlaisavljevich E., ...More

Molecular Pharmaceutics, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1021/acs.molpharmaceut.3c01178
  • Journal Name: Molecular Pharmaceutics
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, BIOSIS, Biotechnology Research Abstracts, Chemical Abstracts Core, MEDLINE
  • Keywords: cyclodextrin, histotripsy, nanocone clusters, nanoparticle-mediated histotripsy, perfluorocarbon
  • Istanbul Medipol University Affiliated: Yes


Nanocone clusters (NCCs) have been developed as clusters with inclusion complexes of FDA-approved β-cyclodextrin (βCD) and perfluorocarbons (PFC) (i.e., perfluoropentane (PFP) and perfluorohexane (PFH)) and have shown promise in nanoparticle-mediated histotripsy (NMH) applications owing to their lowered cavitation threshold, ease of production, and fluorocarbon quantification. However, there is still a lack of information on the best conditions of the synthesis of NCCs as a product that can have a maximum determinable fluorocarbon content and maintain the stability of the NCC during synthesis and when used as histotripsy agents or exposed to physiological conditions. These concerns about the stability of the clusters and the best possible formulation are investigated in the current work. The cluster formation potential was tested taking into consideration the nature of both PFCs and βCD by employing different synthesis conditions in terms of solution and environmental parameters such as concentration of solvent, stoichiometry between βCD and PFCs, temperature, pH, solvent type, etc. The best route of synthesis was then translated into various batch sizes and investigated in terms of the PFC loading and yield. These studies revealed that preparing NCCs in double-distilled water in an ice bath at the optimized solution concentration gave the highest yields and optimal PFC loading, as determined from gas chromatography. Furthermore, the stability of the clusters with different stoichiometries was scrutinized in varying concentrations, mechanical disruption times, pH levels, and temperature conditions, showing effects on each cluster’s particle size in dynamic light scattering, visualized in transmission electron microscopy, and cavitation behavior in agarose gel tissue phantoms. These studies revealed stable clusters for all formulations, with PFH-containing NCCs emerging to be the most stable in terms of their cluster size and bubble formation potential in histotripsy. Finally, the shelf life of these clusters was investigated using DLS, which revealed a stable cluster. In conclusion, NCCs have shown high stability in terms of both synthesis, which can be replicated in gram-level production, and the cluster itself, which can be exposed to harsher conditions and still form stable bubbles in histotripsy.