TIM-3/Galectin-9 interaction and glutamine metabolism in AML cell lines, HL-60 and THP-1

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Shapourian H., Ghanadian M., Eskandari N., Shokouhi A., Demirel G. Y., Bazhin A. V., ...More

BMC CANCER, vol.24, no.1, 2024 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 24 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2024
  • Doi Number: 10.1186/s12885-024-11898-3
  • Journal Name: BMC CANCER
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Veterinary Science Database, Directory of Open Access Journals
  • Keywords: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML), T cell immunoglobulin and mucin-domain containing-3 (TIM-3), Galectin-9 (Gal-9), Glutamine metabolism, Glutaminase (GLS), Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH)
  • Istanbul Medipol University Affiliated: Yes


Background: T cell immunoglobulin and mucin-domain containing-3 (TIM-3) is a cell surface molecule that was first discovered on T cells. However, recent studies revealed that it is also highly expressed in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells and it is related to AML progression. As, Glutamine appears to play a prominent role in malignant tumor progression, especially in their myeloid group, therefore, in this study we aimed to evaluate the relation between TIM-3/Galectin-9 axis and glutamine metabolism in two types of AML cell lines, HL-60 and THP-1. Methods: Cell lines were cultured in RPMI 1640 which supplemented with 10% FBS and 1% antibiotics. 24, 48, and 72 h after addition of recombinant Galectin-9 (Gal-9), RT-qPCR analysis, RP-HPLC and gas chromatography techniques were performed to evaluate the expression of glutaminase (GLS), glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) enzymes, concentration of metabolites; Glutamate (Glu) and alpha-ketoglutarate (α-KG) in glutaminolysis pathway, respectively. Western blotting and MTT assay were used to detect expression of mammalian target of rapamycin complex (mTORC) as signaling factor, GLS protein and cell proliferation rate, respectively. Results: The most mRNA expression of GLS and GDH in HL-60 cells was seen at 72 h after Gal-9 treatment (p = 0.001, p = 0.0001) and in THP-1 cell line was observed at 24 h after Gal-9 addition (p = 0.001, p = 0.0001). The most mTORC and GLS protein expression in HL-60 and THP-1 cells was observed at 72 and 24 h after Gal-9 treatment (p = 0.0001), respectively. MTT assay revealed that Gal-9 could promote cell proliferation rate in both cell lines (p = 0.001). Glu concentration in HL-60 and α-KG concentration in both HL-60 (p = 0.03) and THP-1 (p = 0.0001) cell lines had a decreasing trend. But, Glu concentration had an increasing trend in THP-1 cell line (p = 0.0001). Conclusion: Taken together, this study suggests TIM-3/Gal-9 interaction could promote glutamine metabolism in HL-60 and THP-1 cells and resulting in AML development.