Neuroimaging-Guided Transcranial Magnetic and Direct Current Stimulation in MCI: Toward an Individual, Effective and Disease-Modifying Treatment

HANOĞLU L., VELİOĞLU H. A., Hanoglu T., Yulug B.

Clinical EEG and Neuroscience, vol.54, no.1, pp.82-90, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 54 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1177/15500594211052815
  • Journal Name: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Biotechnology Research Abstracts, EMBASE, MEDLINE
  • Page Numbers: pp.82-90
  • Keywords: MCI, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), neuroimaging, electrophysiology
  • Istanbul Medipol University Affiliated: Yes


The therapeutic approaches currently applied in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and similar neurodegenerative diseases are essentially based on pharmacological strategies. However, despite intensive research, the effectiveness of these treatments is limited to transient symptomatic effects, and they are still far from exhibiting a true therapeutic effect capable of altering prognosis. The lack of success of such pharmacotherapy-based protocols may be derived from the cases in the majority of trials being too advanced to benefit significantly in therapeutic terms at the clinical level. For neurodegenerative diseases, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) may be an early stage of the disease continuum, including Alzheimer's. Noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS) techniques have been developed to modulate plasticity in the human cortex in the last few decades. NIBS techniques have made it possible to obtain unique findings concerning brain functions, and design novel approaches to treat various neurological and psychiatric conditions. In addition, its synaptic and cellular neurobiological effects, NIBS is an attractive treatment option in the early phases of neurodegenerative diseases, such as MCI, with its beneficial modifying effects on cellular neuroplasticity. However, there is still insufficient evidence about the potential positive clinical effects of NIBS on MCI. Furthermore, the huge variability of the clinical effects of NIBS limits its use. In this article, we reviewed the combined approach of NIBS with various neuroimaging and electrophysiological methods. Such methodologies may provide a new horizon to the path for personalized treatment, including a more individualized pathophysiology approach which might even define new specific targets for specific symptoms of neurodegenerations.