Procedural Sedation Protocols with or without Ketamine in Pediatric Gastrointestinal Endoscopy: A Retrospective Cohort Study


Comprehensive medicine, vol.15, no.2, pp.112-119, 2023 (Peer-Reviewed Journal) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 15 Issue: 2
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.14744/cm.2023.47965
  • Journal Name: Comprehensive medicine
  • Journal Indexes: TR DİZİN (ULAKBİM)
  • Page Numbers: pp.112-119
  • Istanbul Medipol University Affiliated: Yes


Objective: A considerable difference exists in pediatric endoscopy sedation practices with the optimal sedation protocol for gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy a subject of controversy and to investigate the safety and efficacy of sedation protocols with or without ketamine in procedural sedation for pediatric GI endoscopy. Materials and Methods: A total of 78 pediatric patients who received sedation anesthesia for GI endoscopy were included in this retrospective study. Anesthesia parameters include duration time, doses of anesthetic agents, Ramsay sedation score, respiratory and hemodynamic parameters, recovery time, modified Aldrete recovery scores, and side effects. Study parameters were evaluated with respect to ketamine dose (no ketamine group (NKG), low-dose ketamine group (LDKG, ≤0.75 mg/kg), and high-dose ketamine group (HDKG, ≥1 mg/kg). Results: The upper GI endoscopy rate (58.12% vs. 90.0%, p=0.001) was significantly lower in LDKG versus HDKG. No significant changes were observed in blood pressure levels, oxygen saturation, or heart rate compared to baseline levels. No significant difference was noted between study groups in terms of recovery time, modified Aldrete recovery scores, and nausea/vomiting. Final Ramsay sedation scores were significantly higher in NKG (p<0.05) and LDKG (p<0.01) than in HDKG. Conclusion: Our findings indicate a favorable safety and efficacy profile for ketamine as a useful adjunct to procedural sedation for pediatric GI endoscopy, enabling better quality of sedation with a low risk of cardiorespiratory suppression, or serious complications.