Anthropometric measurements and food consumption analysis of older people according to place of residence and gender: A cross-sectional study

Barcın Güzeldere H. K., Aksoy M.

Clinical Nutrition ESPEN, vol.45, pp.236-244, 2021 (ESCI) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 45
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.clnesp.2021.08.018
  • Journal Name: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
  • Journal Indexes: Emerging Sources Citation Index (ESCI), Scopus, CAB Abstracts, EMBASE, Food Science & Technology Abstracts, MEDLINE, Veterinary Science Database
  • Page Numbers: pp.236-244
  • Keywords: Anthropometric measurements, Nutrition, Urban, Rural, Older individuals
  • Istanbul Medipol University Affiliated: No


Background & aims: The older population across the world is rapidly increasing, raising the importance of a healthy and independent aging process and the factors affecting it. This study aimed to examine the food consumption habits and anthropometric measurements of older people according to their gender and the place of residence. Methods: A total of 121 healthy participants aged over 80 years who lived in rural (n:70) and urban (n:51) areas in the Aegean Region of Turkey were included in the study. A questionnaire was administered to determine the demographic data and nutritional status of the participants. Three-day food consumption was recorded and then analyzed using BeBiS 8.1. The participants’ adherence to the Mediterranean diet and their Healthy Eating Index-2015 values were calculated based on their food consumption. The circumferences of the waist, hip, upper-mid arm and calf of the participants were measured by the researcher using an inelastic measuring tape. Weight, fat, muscle, water and basal metabolic rate were measured using the TANITA BC730 body impedance analyzer. Results: The mean weight, body mass index, circumferences of waist, hip and upper-mid arm,fat-free mass and basal metabolic rate were higher in the rural men than the urban ones (p < 0.05). The urban women had a higher waist-to-hip ratio than the rural ones (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences in the participants’ adherence to the Mediterranean diet and their Healthy Eating Index values according to gender or the region they lived in. Nutrient intake was compared with the daily recommendations in the Turkish Nutrition Guide. It was found that the urban men consumed more carbohydrates, fats, vitamins A and C, and sodium. In contrast, energy, protein, fiber, vitamins E, D, B1, B2, B6 and B12, folic acid, magnesium, calcium, iron and zinc were consumed at lower amounts than recommendations. On the other hand, the rural men consumed more carbohydrates, fats, vitamins A, C and B2, folic acid, sodium and zinc. Similarly, the urban and rural women were found to have a higher intake of carbohydrates, fats, vitamins A and B2 and sodium and lower intake of other nutrients than recommendations. Conclusion: Old age is one of the most sensitive periods in a person's life cycle. Place of residence during this period may physiologically affect food intake, physical activity, and therefore, anthropometric measurements. Healthcare providers should take into account that place of residence may alter older individuals' nutritional status and anthropometric measurements.